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Viktor Deni, "1st May", poster 1929, lithography print

Soviet Propaganda and Anti-Religious Campaigns

700 940 Lines & Marks

To win in the civil war, the sprouting Soviet power had to ensure it was supported by the workers and the peasants. How could they show the illiterate population that the Bolsheviks were on their side? With a bright poster and a catchy slogan…Soviet propaganda found the soft spots of the powerless poor people, and the outstanding artists of the Russian avant garde helped attack them.” – From Bird in Flight, “The Early Days of Soviet Propaganda.”

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The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed.

The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. Nearly all of its clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited. By 1939 only about 500 of over 50,000 churches remained open.” – From the Library of Congress, Revelations from the Russian Archives, Anti-religious Campaigns.

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post-ussr kid
no-roots tree.

Gustave Dore, "Young Beggar," Pencil & Watercolor.

Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré

497 1000 Lines & Marks

``I have been told for a long time that painting would make me despair of life.``

Gustave Dore,”The Hare and the Frogs.” Engraving, 1868.
Left side: “Paolo and Francesca da Rimini.” Oil on canvas. | Right side: “The Inferno, Canto 5.” Etching.

Doré was born in Strasbourg on 6 January 1832. By age five, he was a prodigy troublemaker, playing pranks that were mature beyond his years. Seven years later, he began carving in cement. At the age of fifteen Doré began his career working as a caricaturist for the French paper Le Journal pour rire, and subsequently went on to win commissions to depict scenes from books by Rabelais, Balzac, Milton and Dante.

In 1853, Doré was asked to illustrate the works of Lord Byron. This commission was followed by additional work for British publishers, including a new illustrated English Bible. In 1856 he produced twelve folio-size illustrations of The Legend of The Wandering Jew for a short poem which Pierre-Jean de Ranger had derived from a novel of Eugène Sue of 1845.

In the 1860s he illustrated a French edition of Cervantes’s Don Quixote, and his depictions of the knight and his squire, Sancho Panza, have become so famous that they have influenced subsequent readers, artists, and stage and film directors’ ideas of the physical “look” of the two characters. Doré also illustrated an oversized edition of Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Raven”, an endeavor that earned him 30,000 francs from publisher Harper & Brothers in 1883. (wiki)

 Gustave Doré, “The Martyrdom of the Holy Innocents,” 1868.

Doré’s illustrations for the English Bible (1866) were a great success, and in 1867 Doré had a major exhibition of his work in London. This exhibition led to the foundation of the Doré Gallery in Bond Street, London. In 1869, Blanchard Jerrold, the son of Douglas William Jerrold, suggested that they work together to produce a comprehensive portrait of London. Jerrold had obtained the idea from The Microcosm of London produced by Rudolph Ackermann, William Pyne, and Thomas Rowlandson in 1808. Doré signed a five-year contract with the publishers Grant & Co that involved his staying in London for three months a year, and he received the vast sum of £10,000 a year for the project. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world-renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings, like those he did for Jerrold, are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.

The completed book, London: A Pilgrimage, with 180 engravings, was published in 1872. It enjoyed commercial and popular success, but the work was disliked by many contemporary critics. Some of these critics were concerned with the fact that Doré appeared to focus on the poverty that existed in parts of London. Doré was accused by The Art Journal of “inventing rather than copying.” The Westminster Review claimed that “Doré gives us sketches in which the commonest, the vulgarest external features are set down.” The book was a financial success, however, and Doré received commissions from other British publishers.

Doré’s later work included illustrations for new editions of Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Milton’s Paradise Lost, Tennyson’s The Idylls of the King, The Works of Thomas Hood, and The Divine Comedy. Doré’s work also appeared in the weekly newspaper The Illustrated London News.

Doré never married and, following the death of his father in 1849, he continued to live with his mother, illustrating books until his death in Paris following a short illness. The city’s Père Lachaise Cemetery contains his grave. The government of France made him a Chevalier de la Legion d’honneur in 1861. (wiki)

 Gustave Doré (1832-1883): Master of Imagination
 Gustave Dore, “The Descent Of The Spirit.”
Top: “The Neophyte.” Oil on canvas. | Bottom: “The Neophyte.” Pencil.

post-ussr kid
no-roots tree.

Art and Architecture Building, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Perspective section after 1964

Paul Marvin Rudolph

1080 763 Lines & Marks

“Nothing ever measures up to what I expect, nothing.”

Paul Rudolph, “The Concourse, Singapore. Atrium. Aerial perspective”, 1981.

The American architect Paul Rudolph  sought to integrate into modern architecture a spatial drama, a concern for urbanism, and an individuality.The son of a Methodist minister, Paul Marvin Rudolph was born on October 28, 1918, in Elkton, Kentucky. He attended the architecture school at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in Auburn, and after graduating in 1940 he entered the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where he studied under Walter Gropius, the former head of the Bauhaus in Germany. After receiving his master’s degree from Harvard in 1947, he spent the next year traveling in Europe (on a Wheelwright Scholarship), where he began to develop a strong interest in urban design, a subject which he felt had been neglected in his education under Gropius.(wiki)

Paul Rudolph, “Burroughs Wellcome Company, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Section perspective looking north”.

``Architecture is a personal effort, and the fewer people coming between you and your work - the better.``

Paul Rudolph, “Urban Design Proposal for Lower Manhattan Expressway”, 1973-1974, with Ulrich Franzen .

“I want to put homes in the sky,” said Rudolph of the ill-fated project. “Psychologically, it makes a great deal of difference for people living closely together in cities.” (b. Elkton, Kentucky 1918; d. 1997)

Rudolph has displayed an interest in the problems of urban design and completed a succession of unexecuted projects. Preoccupied with the notion of an industrialized “plug-in” city, he has devised schemes in which mobile residence pods are plugged into a steel frame which connects to mechanical and electrical services.Rudolph’s work exhibits a highly personal and uncompromising style. Although his works qualify as part of the Modern Movement, he has questioned the validity of the movement’s precepts in his later works. (Encyclopedia of World Biography)

Paul Rudolph, “Sino Tower – Section of Hotel and lower levels of tower”.

post-ussr kid
no-roots tree.

Karl Friedrich Schinkel,"Der Brand von Moskau, 1812/1813"

Karl Friedrich Schinkel

762 571 Lines & Marks

``First delight, then instruct.``

Karl Friedrich Schinkel,”Allegorie auf Beuth, den Pegasus reitend,” 1837. Watercolor. 37,4 x 35,9 cm

Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets. Schinkel was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both neoclassical and neogothic buildings. Schinkel’s style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style that was linked to the recent French occupiers. (Thus, he is a noted proponent of the Greek Revival.) His most famous extant buildings are found in and around Berlin. (wiki)

``use the best possible materials and reveal the qualities of those materials and the craftmanship of their assembly.``

Later, Schinkel moved away from classicism altogether, embracing the Neo-Gothic in his Friedrichswerder Church (1824–1831). Schinkel’s Bauakademie (1832–1836), his most innovative building, eschewed historicist conventions and seemed to point the way to a clean-lined “modernist” architecture that would become prominent in Germany only toward the beginning of the 20th century. (wiki)

 Karl Friederich Schinkel, “The Gate in the Rocks,” 1818. Oil on canvas. 29.1 x 18.9 in
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